| A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z |


Thokozile Mabeqa (University of the Western Cape, South Africa)

The term 'consistency' in translation activities: its validity and/or invalidity

South Africa is largely comprised of semi-illiterate communities. Many documents pertaining to the conveyance of important messages that affect the larger society are communicated to these communities through translated documents in South African indigenous languages. These documents need to be translated in a simple and communicative manner, considering the level of education these communities possess. It happens that sometimes the same translated documents are read by school going children and also by people with a higher level of education than the semi-illiterate people. Based on the above statements, the researcher seeks to investigate the validity and/or invalidity of the term 'inconsistency' in translation. The researcher also seeks to unpack the term and reasons for its validity and/or invalidity in some instances, as it has been widely indicated by some translators (particularly South Africa translators of indigenous languages) that this term is valid when it comes to translation activities. The research will be based on Xhosa terms, but English translations of the terms will be provided. The researcher will also provide some English texts that may unpack the validity and/or non-validity of the term 'consistency'. When dealing with this notion, the researcher will base her arguments on some translation procedure as indicated by Newmark and Vinay and Darbelnet.

Thokozile Mabeqa is a senior lecturer in the Department of Xhosa at the University of the Western Cape in Bellville, South Africa. She is currently teaching Translation Studies at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. She is also teaching African Cultural Studies, Literature, Creative Writing and Xhosa Acquisition. Thokozile is currently busy with a PhD Degree in Translation Studies at the University of Stellenbosch. She decided to continue with Translation Studies since the field is in demand nowadays due to the multilingual society that has emerged over time, and due to the fact that there is a need for all documents, particularly school learning and teaching material, to be in all the different official languages of South Africa. Thokozile has presented academic papers on different fields of studies including the field of Translation Studies, both nationally and abroad. She has translated many South African Government documents as well as school and learning materials. She is a South African Institute of Translators (SATI) accredited translator, and she is also working as a freelance translator.

Sergi Mainer (University of Stirling)

William Fowler's Petrarch

As well as translating Machivelli's Prince into Early Modern Scots, William Fowler (1560-1612) also translated Petrarch's Trionfi and adapted his Canzoniere as The Tarantula of Love to contemporary Protestant Scotland during the reign of James VI. While the Tarantula has been praised as Fowler's masterpiece, scholars have regarded the Triumphs as an unsuccessful attempt to reproduce Petrach's Trionfi in Scotland. What I would like to prove in this paper is that both the Tarantula and the Triumphs should be read together in order to reassess the ideological and literary significance of the latter. Ideologically, the Protestant dialectics present in the Tarantula are replicated in the Triumphs; the beloved lady is no longer a redemptive figure leading to salvation, but the carnal temptation the narrator needs to avoid to progress spiritually. Stylistically, the Triumphs have been labelled as unnecessary elongated and repetitive in comparison to the original. Conversely, I contend that such style responds to the mannerism and rhetorical extravagance also shown by other contemporary Scots poets such as John Stewart of Baldynneis or Alexander Montgomerie.

Sergi Mainer is a British Academy Postdoctoral Fellow at the Department of English Studies, Stirling University. His current research reassesses the importance of literary translation during the reign of James VI of Scotland. His previous research on the medieval Scottish romances resulted in a monograph, Nation, Chivalry and Knighthood: The Scottish Romance Tradition c. 1375- c. 1550 (Rodopi, forthcoming early 2009). His areas of research interest are Older Scots literature, and medieval and renaissance comparative literature: Scotland, Britain and Europe.

Dorothea Martens (University College London)

The (Im?)Possibility of Translating (Intertextual) Poetry ~ Translating Latin Poet Tibullus

Referential and self-referential writing has always been an underlying characteristic of poets and poetry. This is so particularly in Classical works. Not only the surviving literature serves as evidence, also Horace and Longinus in their writings about poetry pay witness to this: Imitation of the great poets may lead the poet novice to sublimity (cf. Horace's 'Ars Poetica', Longinus' 'On Sublimity'). The question every translator now is faced with is how to translate such highly allusive poetic work? Does it do the original text justice to leave out the literary allusions within it, the at times complex nets woven by the original author? On the other hand, will the target-audience recognise allusions to Classical poets, especially if given in their English translation? In my paper, I will take as example the opening elegy by Augustan poet Tibullus (55?BC-19?BC). Once criticised for being derivative and lacking originality (Felix Jacoby, 1910), Tibullus, even though still generally overlooked, is now variously seen as a highly allusive and distinguished poet. I will discuss some examples of his literary engagement with his Roman contemporaries (i.e. Virgil, Horace and Propertius) and one of his Greek predecessors, Bacchylides. Having looked through the existing translations of his poetry into English, I found that nobody has yet attempted to translate these literary allusions. Therefore, in the second part of my paper, I will explore some translation solutions for those examples of intertextuality discussed in part I. Keywords: Intertextuality, Translation, Classics, Tibullus, Latin Love-Elegy Keytext: Maltby, Robert (2002), Tibullus: Elegies; Text, Introduction and Commentary, Cambridge: Francis Cairns

Dorothea Martens pursues research towards the Ph.D. in Translation Studies at University College London. Under the working title 'Intertextuality in Translation', she explores translators' solutions for the problem of translating literary allusions, as well as the complexity of intertextual relations among translations themselves. Dorothea has obtained a B.A. in Classics with English from King's College London in 2004 and a M.A. in Comparative Literature from University College London in 2005.

Jerome Luc Martin (University of Cambridge)

Under the Bronze Leaves: Reading Perse's Anabase through Eliot's Anabasis

Saint-John Perse's epic poem Anabase deals with the driving restlessness that leads men to rupture, migration and renewal. The poem is set on the moving edge of civilization-a point of confusion, of constant departures-and in the tumult of that space the poem's narrator traces the movement of a warlike and industrious people from city to new city, through the deserts and grasslands of an unnamed continent. It seems only natural that a poem so invested in the themes of restlessness and renewal should find its way into a multiplicity of forms and languages-but one translation stands out among the rest: T. S. Eliot's Anabasis. Anabasis is not a single translation but a series of translations: over the course of more than thirty years, Eliot with Perse's assistance produced four English-language editions of Anabase. These remarkable works channel and sustain the original poem's engagement with restlessness and, in fact, have become an indispensable extension of the poem. They represent not merely an English transcription of the French text but a necessary development in the poem's form. In this paper I will explore how Eliot's open-ended series of translations fulfil the poetic undertaking of Anabase, uniting the poem's formal structure with its content in a continuous process of collaboration, revision and negotiation. I will argue that Anabase is best read through an understanding of Anabasis and that, in many ways, Eliot as a translator crosses the line between adaptation and authorship.

I did my undergrad at Harvard and then in 2004 I completed an MFA in poetry writing at the Writer's Workshop at the University of Iowa. My doctoral work at Cambridge focuses on the role of restlessness in the work of Saint-John Perse, Thoreau, Audubon and others. I am also working on a new translation of some of Perse's long poems.

Claire McCallum (University of Glasgow)

Translation and Modernism in the poetry of William Soutar

This paper will examine the contexts of the translation work of the Scottish poet William Soutar (1898-1943), most of which is contained in one manuscript, entitled Theme and Variation. For two reasons, Soutar does not describe the poems as translations. Firstly, although the list of source texts includes works by Ady, Pasternak and Pushkin, Soutar works exclusively from existing English translations when making his 'variations', and translates them into Scots. Secondly, his practices within the collection are as varied as the sources he draws from. In some cases, his Scots poems are direct poetic translations from the English version; in others, the source texts are virtually unrecognisable, as Soutar has constructed a free play on a theme. From these varying ideas of what it is to translate, Soutar's collection creates something new and innovative from a synthesis of fresh approach and existing materials. In this respect, translation represents the pinnacle of the Modernist achievement, and its aim to 'Make It New'. In many countries, Modernism revisited the past and reworked existing texts in order to revive a sense of national 'identity', of shared cultural precedent. Interestingly, Soutar's translations go against the grain and borrow from texts outside of his own tradition, all the while contributing to a 'Scottish Cultural Renaissance', or Modern movement by assimilating them into the Scottish language tradition. This paper will look at the European and Scottish contexts of Soutar's variations on themes, and how literary translation can involve more than the poetic explanation of meaning between languages.

Claire McCallum is a PhD student in the Department of Scottish Literature at Glasgow University, working on the poetry and diaries of William Soutar through European and modernist contexts. Her research is supported by the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland. A previous recipient of the Herkless Prize for the best female graduate in Glasgow University's Faculty of Arts, Claire is currently a Graduate Teaching Assistant on the Level One Scottish Literature course, and the Reviews Editor for the ASLS publication, Scot Lit.

Christopher Michel (Syracuse University)

Reconstructing Foreign Forms: An examination of the issues of Georgian to English poetry translation through the work of Galaktion Tabidze

Georgia, a small country in the south Caucasus has a centuries old literary history, and a language that is unique for its distinctly non Indo-European origins, and its blend of Persian and Russian influences. Georgia has enjoyed several literary renaisances, most recently in the early 20th century, just before, and after the Communist Revolution which took over Russia and resulted in Georgia's annexation. One of the greatest of Georgia's poets in the 20th century, Galaktion Tabidze was renowned for his subtlety, wit, wordplay, and dark tone, even during a time when censors were demanding that all work be socially uplifting. My paper examines the Georgian language's unique imagery, rhythms, and connotative qualities, and the difficulties inherent in trying to translate a poetry which is often frustratingly ambiguous, even to native speakers.

Christopher Michel holds an M.A. in English/Creative Writing from Miami University, and is currently an MFA candidate at Syracuse University. In 2006 he travelled to Tbilisi, in the Republic of Georgia on a Fulbright to work on translations of Galaktion Tabidze (1891 - 1956), a major writer in early Soviet Georgia. Primarily a poet, Chris became interested in Georgia, and Georgian poetry during a trip in 2003, and since then has studied translation and translation theory in an effort to bring more interesting writing into the English language.

Tina Montone (University of Bologna)

Dutch antiquities and Dutch miseries in emblematic form: the English verses by Richard Verstegan for Otto van Veen's book of love emblems (1608)

According to a recent statement by Karel Porteman, the English verses of Richard Verstegen (a.k.a. Richard Rowlands, c. 1550-1640, real name usually anglicised as Verstegan) included in one of the three different versions of Otto van Veen's collection of profane love emblems (Amorum emblemata, 1608), are considered to be the most original ones. Verstegen's role as an emblematic poet in the officina of the Dutch courtier and painter Van Veen or Vaenius (1556-1629), the master of Rubens, and the extent and impact of his contribution to the composition of the collection are unclear to this very day. This version of the Amorum was published Venalia apud Auctorem by the Antwerp printer H. Swingen and dedicated to the brothers William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke (1580-1630) and Philip Herbert, Earl of Montgomery (1584-1650), nephews of Sir Philip Sidney and famous patrons in England. The main question is the way in which the emblematic captions work within Vaenius' emblematic creation. In Vaenius' book of emblems the subscriptio or caption near the image is not merely a commentary on the emblematic illustration or a simple translation of a given model but the collaborators have an active part in the construction and allusive tecniques of the emblematic message. This sheds new light, for instance, on the Italian "translations" composed by Benedetti or the English ones by Verstegen. The formidable author of well known books such as Restitution of Decayed Intelligence (1605), Dutch Antiquities (1613) and Mirror of the Dutch Miseries (1621) confirms here the image of a master in word-formation and a true purist of the English language.

Tina Montone graduated in Dutch Language and Literature at the University of Bologna. In the following years she finished her PhD in Germanic Languages, more specifically on seventheeth-century Dutch literature, in 2004 at the Catholic University of Louvain (Belgium) under the supervision of Prof. Em. Karel Porteman. From 2005 she teaches Dutch Language and Literature at the University of Bologna and the University of Padua. She is the author of articles published in Italian and international journals on Dutch literature from various periods, specially on Renaissance and Baroque Dutch and Flemish poetry and on modern prose and testimonies of the Shoah and WW2.

Stephen Mooney (Birkbeck College)

'reception' - Translation (in Both Directions) Between Lexical and Visual Textuality

In the poetry and poetics of the British Poetry Revival and the 'linguistically innovative' school of UK poetry in English, there has long been a tradition of experimentation and innovation with visual, sound, and lexical textuality. Processes of composition and performance in the works of Bob Cobbing, Lawrence Upton and others, for example, have pushed the boundaries of what visual and sound textuality can achieve. In Spring 2005 LUC, a London based grouping of linguistically innovative poets, published the first issue of 'reception', a bilingual journal of experimental translation with poets from the Foro de Escritores grouping in Chile. Notionally from Spanish into English, and from English into Spanish, with the original language texts published alongside, these translations sought to utilise, in the translation process, the developments inherent to the practices of concrete and visual poetry in the UK and Chilean innovative poetic traditions. Not only are there lexical and visual strategies posed; we also encounter these strategies applied in translation (in both directions) between lexical and visual texts, a use of practice I am not aware of elsewhere. I propose to examine the innovative strategies employed (lexical, visual, performative, and temporal) in these experimental translations, and those from later issues of the journal, with specific relation to the translation of abstract, visual, and concrete textuality into a lexical textuality from another language, and vice-versa. I would also seek to locate this experimental translation practice within the wider fields of poetic translation, and innovative poetic practices.

Stephen Mooney - completing a PhD in temporality and contemporary poetics at Birkbeck College, University of London, where he is part of the Contemporary Poetics Research Centre there. He is also a poet, part of the performative poetry grouping 'London Under Construction', and one of those behind 'Veer Books'. He is the co-editor of the Readings web journal http://www.bbk.ac.uk/readings/ and co-assistant editor of the PORES web journal www.pores.ac.uk . His poetry has appeared in various places and web-places including Xcp: Cross Cultural Poetics, YT Communications Bulletin, Instant Anthology: Online, Veer Away, Reception, LUC Underground Poems, Great Works, Nth Position, Transatlantic Howl! A Dedication to Allen Ginsberg, etc